Read All About It (Or Not): The Trouble with the Turkish Press

Istanbul’s 2013 Gezi Park protests unearthed muddy tales of corruption, bias, and authoritarianism that powerful conglomerates and the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) would have preferred buried indefinitely. The government received global scrutiny as anyone from students to grandmothers gathered in the streets to demonstrate against the AKP’s increasingly undemocratic actions, including silencing the press.

In the years since, the Syrian crisis, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s strong-handed foreign policy, and religious issues have dominated coverage of Turkey abroad – leaving important issues like press freedom and related human rights violations once again shrouded in silence. Yet the political biases of Turkish media deserve scrutiny by Turkish and international audiences alike. Amidst the crises of the region, misreporting and bias convolutes the information reaching the public and can have very real implications for the understanding and response to various issues. The stories of daily paper Sabah and the press treatment of the Kurdish minority both offer warnings of the damage Turkey’s biased press machinery can cause.

Sabah, a daily newspaper founded in 1985, is telling of the complex and often hidden ways in which press freedom is stifled in Turkey – and just how deeply corporate and government meddling runs in the industry. After displeasing government officials in 2007, the paper was seized over an alleged misfiling of merger and acquisition paperwork six years before. The state sold the daily to a company owned by then-Prime Minister Erdoğan’s son-in-law using state-subsidized funds, allowing the government to effectively control Sabah’s content.

When this was uncovered during Turkey’s December 2013 anti-corruption protests, the holding company quickly sold Sabah’s owner, Turkuvaz Media, to another conglomerate, Kalyon Group. Selling to Kalyon was supposed to wipe the government’s fingerprints from the pages of Sabah, but the group, also involved in construction, energy, and infrastructure, won a government contract to build Istanbul’s new airport, as well as controversial projects in downtown Istanbul’s Taksim Square. The journalist that exposed the shady underworld of Turkey’s media in the New York Times was immediately fired by Sabah.

While Sabah serves as a particularly twisted example of the incest among corporate, political, and media interests, its case is not unique. Most media in Turkey is of the polarized political model, meaning papers are closely tied to certain political parties and views. Popular newspaper Hürriyet, for example, is a secular, anti-government paper, while Zaman is a religious, though also anti-government outlet. These biases transmit skewed information that affects civil society’s understanding of and reaction to issues. The media is a battleground for politics, allowing giant corporations to leverage their money and influence to alter the political landscape in Turkey. As Turkey begins another year full of political turmoil, refugee crises, and terrorist threats, disconnect and confusion in the public will further divide groups and politicians on Turkey’s policy.

The case of the Kurds, a minority group numbering about 15 million within Turkey who have been systematically denied group rights since the creation of the Turkish state, has already demonstrated the dangers of a heavily politicized press. One group of Kurds, the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), has waged a guerilla war for autonomy and independence against the government since 1984. The press uses the actions of this group to report on Kurdish issues from whatever angle they see fit – often painting Kurds as a whole as violent and using the effects of the PKK’s violence to polarize the public to suit their political aims.

The 2011 Şırnak bombing of Kurdish civilians smuggling goods like tires and cigarettes between Turkey and Iraq to survive, was warped to justify not only the government’s actions but the persecution against all Kurds in the fight against the PKK. Anti-government daily Hürriyet took a stance more sympathetic towards civilians while religious newspaper Zaman offered few, though mostly factual articles, and Sabah predictably mirrored the government line. Meanwhile, all three newspapers’ international English language editions defended the government. The readership of each newspaper would have received information about the bombing in such a way as to harden their own political views – and international audiences would have been baldly missing information that uncovered the government’s mistake. The bias of each paper shaped their audience’s understanding along their own political lines.

The media continues to ignore and justify the government’s actions towards Kurdish communities. The hardships of Kurdish areas under stringent curfews and facing cuts to vital services are passed off as part of legitimate anti-terrorism measures without further examination, and external observers are barred from the area. The 200,000 people affected by these measures have limited ways to seek help. In January, someone who tried to speak out about these issues on a chat show was arrested. The Kurds are playing a more and more pivotal role in the fight against the Islamic State (IS), and their treatment in the Turkish media can have a deep effect on how the Turkish public, and accordingly, its elected government, treats these potential allies. The history of the conflict makes a deep relationship difficult, but uniting forces against a common threat is easily hindered by voices shaming a population for the actions of a few.

The international community still offers Turkey’s media bias some attention amidst the other crises it currently handles when dealing with Turkey. However, it focuses on the explicit violations of press freedom, like the jailing of editors and journalists for anti-government rhetoric or reporting. International actors are not pressuring Turkey to change the shady dealings of corporations and politics that color important interactions in the civil sphere. In the war of information occurring in the country, these dealings can have an impact beyond the borders and into the sphere of international relations.

Staying informed about extreme measures, such as the curfews in the southeast and other violations of international law, is hampered by a wash of political information that skews stories and clouds reality. To win the support of the Turkish people, offer less biased information domestically and internationally, and ensure that Turkey is able to hold on to the shreds of the democratic ideals it has left, the international community should be paying more attention to the Turkish press. In the meantime, if you are interested in understanding the complex state of Turkish politics, I suggest you turn to Twitter, where groups like 140journos use the platform for citizen-led, non-political reporting.

*Article originally published by the St Andrews Economist*

Upcoming CGC Events

‘Protest and Politicization. Critical Theory in Times of Resistance’ Professor Christian Volk, University of Trier, Germany. Tuesday, 8 March, 5 pm-7pm, Arts Building, Seminar Room 2

‘Normalcy and Normativity: Constitutive and Contestatory Practices in Global Governance’ Professor Antje Weiner, University of Hamburg, Germany. Monday, 4 April, 5pm Arts Lecture Theatre

‘Justice and Reconciliation in International Relations’ Professor Catherine Lu, McGill University, Canada. Monday, 18 April, 5pm Arts Lecture Theatre. Cosponsored with the Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies.

CGC Blog Competition – Closing Date Friday 8 April

Blog Competion

1st prize £60
2 runners up prizes of £30 each

To launch our new blog posts page we invite submissions of articles & blog posts (max 1000 words) from undergraduate & postgraduate students at the University of St Andrews.

Posts should address relevant contemporary issues related to the Centre’s interests including constitutionalism, the rule of law, politics, ethics, human rights or justice. The winning and runners up posts will be published on the CGC Blog Posts Page and Global Politics Magazine. Outstanding submissions not winning a prize may also be published at the Centre’s discretion.

Relevant contemporary issues may include but are not limited to the European refugee crisis, the UK’s place in the EU, Scotland’s place in the UK, political or constitutional events in specific countries or globally, conflict, climate change, human rights around the world. Successful entries will address the contemporary issue within the context of constitutionalism or the Centre’s other interests.

Please submit your blog post / article with your Matric No to globcon@st-andrews.ac.uk by Friday 8 April.

Update on CGC Activities and Events – February 2016

From Professor Tony Lang, Director, Centre for Global Constitutionalism

For some time, the CGC has had a blog option on its website. This has been used by a few of us, but we’d like to encourage more students and scholars with interests in the broadly defined field of Global Constitutionalism to utilize it and submit articles and blog posts (email address below).

With that in mind, let me start things off with a few announcements about the Centre and its activities.

First, I’m very pleased to announce our four interns for the 2015-2016 academic year: Max Curtis, Kate Cyr, Ashley Gierlach, and Christine Kim. In fact, they have been hard at work on projects and activities related to the Centre, and they will be working hard on activities in the coming semester. Welcome to our interns!

Second, two new members of staff in the School of International Relations have joined the Centre. Dr Adam Bower, who recently arrived from fellowships at Oxford University and the European University Institute, focuses on IR theory (especially constructivism and theories of contestation and strategic action), international organizations, disarmament, international humanitarian law, and the International Criminal Court. More specifically, his work examines how legal institutions — especially multilateral treaties– influence international affairs by transforming expectations about appropriate conduct. Dr Mateja Peters, who recently arrived from the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, focuses on global governance and international organisations, peace operations and state-building, questions of international authority, and the broader politics of international interventions in (post-) conflict territories. Both will be working with the Centre on their research themes which will greatly enhance the work of the Centre.

Third, the Centre will soon be issuing its first annual report, a result of the efforts of research fellow Dr Iain Ferguson. Dr Ferguson has developed a methodology for measuring and assessing changes in international law and institutions relating to constitutionalism. The report should appear in late March. Watch this space for more details!

Fourth, the Centre will soon be posting a series of videos describing its mandate and coming projects. These videos will give easy to access information on the Centre and will become a regular feature of our work.

Fifth, Centre Director Professor Anthony Lang along with Centre Board Member Professor Antje Wiener of Hamburg University are currently working on a Handbook of Global Constitutionalism to be published by Edward Elgar Press in late 2016 or early 2017. This Handbook will include a wide range of contributions from scholars all over the world, covering different historical periods and theoretical traditions. A draft introduction to the Handbook is available for viewing here.

Finally, please keep an eye out for our upcoming events. These include lectures by scholars from the universities in Canada and Germany. In addition, we will be working with some of the student groups here at St Andrews to develop alternative ways of advancing our research and activities. Please watch our social media sites (Facebook and Twitter) and this website for more details on all our activities. And, do not hesitate to contact us via our email address at globcon@st-andrews.ac.uk

Internships at The Centre for Global Constitutionalism

We will be holding a meeting on Wednesday, 23 September at 3:00 PM in Room 243 of the Arts Building for students and postgrads interested in finding out more about the CGC internships programme. At the meeting, information will be available on the types of responsibilities an internship would entail and the application process.

More information on CGC internships can be found here.

 

 

 

Workshop on Challenging the Narrative of Cost-Free War

An interdisciplinary workshop between the University of Hull, Remote Control and the University of St Andrews.

10th – 11th September 2015
Seminar Room 2,
Arts Faculty Building,
The Scores

Contemporary Western narratives highlight and perpetuate the idea that war has no cost. Drawing on the legacies of the Kosovo war, it has become fashionable to argue that the Western dependence on aerial warfare has few costs for those involved. Indeed this narrative has been cemented in the Western press and government circles through the idea of ‘precision’ strikes, targeted killings of opponents and the all-pervasive myth that Western actions have few consequences on the ground. Using the ideas, narratives and cultures of those on the receiving end of Western strikes this workshop argues that Western narratives ignore the very essence, the substance and the timings of what constitutes opposition to aerial warfare by real people in real places. While it may be comfortable to argue that for example drone strikes have no negative consequences for the West this workshop explores the many ways in which resistance is formed, ferments and fuels counter Western narratives.

For more information on the programme  please click here .